By Bartell F.E.
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Sensible instrumentation tools are offered for measuring the ac features of enormous, prolonged or interconnected grounding structures. Measurements of impedance to distant earth, step and contact potentials, and present distributions are coated for grounding structures ranging in complexity from small grids (less than 900 m2), with just a couple of attached overhead or direct burial naked concentric neutrals, to giant grids (greater than 20 000 m2), with many hooked up neutrals, overhead flooring wires (sky wires), counterpoises, grid tie conductors, cable shields, and steel pipes.
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3 Double breaker–double bus The double breaker–double bus scheme is a variation of the breaker-and-a-half configuration and is sometimes used along with it. Two breakers are connected between two buses, and the transmission line is connected between the breakers, as shown in Figure 19. This configuration allows breaker and bus redundancy for the transmission line termination. CTs from the two breakers are summed for the line protection. If the relay system requires VTs, they are located on the line side of the circuit breakers.
The reverse-looking distance relay element setting should include adequate margin to ensure that it actually “sees” further than the remote forward-looking relay. Reverse-looking overcurrent elements should be set more sensitively than the remote forward-looking overcurrent element to ensure a positive sensitivity margin. The positive sensitivity margin is required for forward and reverse overcurrent elements in a pilot scheme, because the line impedance does not affect the relative magnitude of current in each terminal for an external fault.
The impedance value of a series capacitor is typically between 25% and 75% of the line impedance. Capacitor overvoltage protection is a part of capacitor bank protection. The overvoltage protection consists of a parallel power gap or a metal oxide varistor (MOV). The purpose of this protection is to limit the voltage applied to the capacitor if fault or load current will produce voltages high enough to damage the capacitor. A bypass breaker may also be used in the design for non-fault-related capacitor protection, as well as for providing flexibility of operation.
Anomalous Osmose (1920)(en)(5s) by Bartell F.E.