By James F. Blanchard, Han Kang, Faran Emmanuel, Sushena Reza Paul,
South Asia's HIV epidemic is extremely heterogeneous. hence, expert, prioritized, and powerful responses necessitate an figuring out of the epidemic variety among and inside international locations. extra unfold of HIV in South Asia is preventable. the longer term dimension of South Asia's epidemic depends upon an efficient two-pronged strategy: first of all, at the scope and effectiveness of HIV prevention courses for intercourse staff and their consumers, injecting drug clients and their sexual companions, and males having intercourse with males and their different sexual companions; and secondly, at the effectiveness of efforts to deal with the underlying socio-economic determinants of the epidemic, and to lessen stigma and discrimination in the direction of humans carrying out excessive possibility behaviors, usually marginalized in society, in addition to humans dwelling with HIV and AIDS. This overview used to be undertaken to supply a foundation for rigorous, evidence-informed HIV coverage and programming in South Asia.
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Additional resources for AIDS in South Asia: Understanding And Responding to a Heterogenous Epidemic (Health, Nutrition and Population Series)
Mapping studies show that IDUs, like female SWs and MSM, are highly concentrated in Karachi, which has as many as 3,200 home-based IDUs and almost four times as many street-based IDUs (NACP 2005a). Cross-sectional studies from Pakistan (Altaf, Shah, and Memon 2003; Ghauri, Shah, and Memon 2003; Zafar and others 2003) and behavioral surveillance from India (NACO 2001c) show that most IDUs exchange drugs and equipment, increasing their HIV risk. A substantial proportion of IDUs in Pakistan (40 to 77 percent) and in India (50 to 70 percent, except in West Bengal) used a needle and syringe previously used by someone else.
Both urban and rural dwellers in those two areas reported comparatively high levels of consistent condom use with nonregular partners. In urban areas, well over half of the general population reported such condom use, with proportionately greater reports (generally by at least 20 percent) of males reporting condom use than females. In Goa-Daman-Diu, a relatively high proportion of rural males (70 percent) reported consistent condom use with nonregular partners, whereas no females reported such condom use.
Some areas of Nepal have an advanced HIV epidemic among female SWs. The 2001 HIV prevalence among female SWs in the Kathmandu Valley (16 percent) is slightly higher than the figure among Karnataka’s female SWs in 2004 (NCASC and FHI 2002b). However, it is nearly three times higher for Nepali female SWs who have worked in parts of India other than Mumbai (41 percent) and almost five times higher for those who have worked in Mumbai (72 percent) (FHI, New Era, and SACTS 2002b). Every year, between 5,000 and 7,000 Nepali girls are trafficked to India, where at least 20,000 female SWs come from Nepal (Furber, Newell, and Lubben 2002).
AIDS in South Asia: Understanding And Responding to a Heterogenous Epidemic (Health, Nutrition and Population Series) by James F. Blanchard, Han Kang, Faran Emmanuel, Sushena Reza Paul,